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Text B. Chronic Gastritis

The term chronic gastritis must be limited to those cases in which evidences of inflammation or catarrhal changes in the stomach are clear.

Chronic gastritis is known to occur as a separate or primary disease or it may be associated with other diseases, particularly chronic liver and kidney
disease. In these diseases chronic impairment of the mucous membrane of the stomach is an important factor in causing the catarrhal condition.

The most important causes of chronic gastritis proved to be alcohol, inadequate food and a bad diet regimen.

The characteristic clinical manifestations of gastritis are an increased secretion of mucus and a diminished secretion of acid and pepsin. In severe forms of gastritis secretion is observed to be completely reduced and even absent due to the lesion of the mucus membrane.

The most frequent symptoms of chronic gastritis are loss of appetite, slight pain and general epigastric discomfort after meals. In severe cases nausea and vomiting of mucus, particularly in the morning, are often observed. Frequently the stomach becomes moderately enlarged.

The course of the disease is chronic and the symptoms are continuous. They may become worse from time to time if a sick person does not follow the diet regimen strictly.



I. Прочтите следующие слова. Переведите их:

cancer ['kaensa], carcinoma [,ka:si'noum3], aetiology [,i:ti'olad3i], tumour [*tju:ma], epigastric [,epi'gaestnk], anaemia [э'ш:пуэ]

II.Выучите следующие слова: malignant [ma'lignant] а злокачественный hot [hot] а горячий, жаркий

suggest [safest] v наводить на мысль, предполагать; предлагать

support [sa'port] ч поддерживать, подкреплять (доводы)

hereditary [hi'reditari] а наследственный

node [noud] п узел; нарост, утолщение

digestion [di'd3estjbn] п пищеварение; усвоение (пищи)

bleeding ['blirdirj] п кровотечение

remain [n'mein] v оставаться

empty ['empti] а пустой

Название заболеваний

III. Следующие слова и словосочетания распределите по графам:

Название патологических симптомов

angina pectoris, perspiration, murmur, intermittent fever, benign and malignant tumours, occlusion, dullness, crepitation, fatigue, ulcer, haemorrhage, epigastric pain, carcinoma, loss of appetite and weight, pleurisy, anaemia, fibrillation, vomiting; nausea

IV. Напишите слова, близкие по значению:

1. disturbance; 2. to radiate; 3. to result in; 4. a damage; 5. continuous; 6. influence; 7. fever; 8. constant; 9. mild; 10. acute; 11. internal; 12. adequate; 13. onset; 14. to diminish; 15. ache; 16. to rise; 17. to involve; 18. carcinoma; 19. to nourish; 20. state; 21. bleeding; 22. to extend

V. Напишите слова противоположного значения:

1. gradually; 2. to increase; 3. to diminish; 4. mild; 5. internal; 6. to be due to; 7. to follow; 8. onset; 9. base; 10. to accomplish; 11. to be admitted; 12. adult; 13. to decrease; 14. to disappear; 15. to divide; 16. dry; 17. exertion; 18. to rise; 19. to improve; 20. physical; 21. cold; 22. benign; 23. to leave; 24. to doubt

VI. Найдите и переведите предложения со сложным дополнением и предложения со сложным подлежащим:

1. Academician А. N. Bakulev is considered to be the founder of a new branch of surgery — cardiosurgery. 2. The cardiologist expected the patient to undergo the heart operation if the therapeutic measures proved to be ineffective. 3. Hypothermia is known to be employed in cardiosurgery to enable the surgeon to correct small congenital or developed heart defects. 4. The evidence of gastric ulcer seemed to be confirmed by nausea and vomiting, though such a sign as intermittent fever was not characteristic of the disease. 5. The physician observed the patient's appetite have been gradually improving since the administration of the adequate preparation.

VII. Переведите следующие предложения, используя сложное подлежащее (письменно):

1. Вероятно, у больного метастазы в печени вследствие рака желудка. 2. Было обнаружено, что у него язва желудка. 3. Оказалось, что больной был слишком слаб для такой операции.

VIII. 1. Прочтите текст С. 2. Найдите: а)предложения со сложным подлежащим и переведите их; б) в каждом предложении пятого абзаца — сказуемые. 3. Изложите основную мысль шестого абзаца в одном предложении. 4. Составьте пять вопросов по второму абзацу текста:

Gastric carcinoma is a frequent form of cancer causing about 35-40% of all deaths from malignant tumours.

This disease is more common in men than in women. The highest incidence is noted at ages of 50 to 60. Gastric carcinoma is known to have a more malignant course in young persons than in old age. The duration of gastric cancer from the appearance of its first manifestations to death is not longer than 1 -2 years.

The aetiology of cancer is unknown. But such pathologic conditions as benign tumours, ulcer of the stomach, gastritis and stomach polyps have been determined to contribute considerably to its development.

According to certain data the use of too hot or too cold food, smoking and alcohol are considered to be responsible for the development of stomach carcinoma.

In the past few years a virus theory of cancer has been suggested. Though this theory is supported by many it has not yet been proved. For a long time many scientists have beep discussing the importance of hereditary factors in the development of cancer. The hereditary theory has not yet been confirmed either (также).

The clinical manifestations of gastric carcinoma vary with the stage of its development, location and spread through the lymphatic nodes and other inner organs. The main symptoms of gastric carcinoma are known to be disturbance in gastric digestion, epigastric pains, loss of weight and sometimes vomiting of blood. A prolonged, usually external, profuse bleeding results in severe anaemia. The appetite is usually reduced.

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