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When an electric current is passed through a coil of metal wire, a magnetic field is developed around the coil. When a piece of copper is placed inside the coil, this field increases by less than 1 percent, but, when a piece of iron, cobalt, or nickel is placed inside the coil, the external field can increase 10,000 times. This strong magnetic property is known as ferromagnetism, and the three metals listed above are the most prominent ferromagnetic metals.
When the piece of ferromagnetic metal is removed from the coil, it retains some of this magnetism (that is, it is magnetized). If the metal is hard, as in a hardened piece of steel, the loss, or reversal, of magnetization will be slow, and the sample will be useful as a permanent magnet. If the metal is soft, it will quickly lose its magnetism; this will make it useful in electrical transformers, where rapid reversal of magnetization is essential.
In many types of solids, the atoms possess a permanent magnetic moment (they act like small bar magnets). In most solids, the direction of these moments is arranged at random. What is exceptional about ferromagnetic solids is that the interatomic forces cause the moments of neighbouring atoms spontaneously to align in the same direction. If the moments of all of the atoms in a single sample lined up in the same direction, the sample would be an exceptionally strong magnet with exceptionally high energy.
That energy would be reduced if the sample broke up into domains, with all atomic moments in each domain being aligned but the direction of magnetization in adjacent domains being in opposite directions and thus tending to cancel one another. This is what happens when a ferromagnetic metal is magnetized: all domains do not take on the same orientation, but domains of one orientation grow at the expense of others.
The alignment of atomic magnetic moments within a domain is weakened by thermally induced oscillations, and ferromagnetism is finally lost above the Curie point, which is 770° C (1,420° F) for iron and 358° C (676° F) for nickel.
7. Проверьте усвоенную информацию, ответив на следующие вопросы на английском языке:
1. What are the most prominent ferromagnetic metals?
2. How does hardness of the metal effect its magnetic properties?
3. Why do ferromagnetic solids acquire such strong magnetic properties?
4. What can considerably reduce magnetic properties?
8. Подставьте следующие предлоги в пробелы:
of, by, under, with, at, from around, through, as, into
1. The electrical conductivity …. a metal is determined …. the ease of movement … electrons past the atoms …… the influence of an electric field. 2. Aluminium is well-known conductor …. electricity. 3. The conductivity ….. a given metal is decreased … phenomena that deflect the moving electrons. 4. The random oscillation …. atoms is induced ……. thermal energy. 5. This example explains why the conductivity …… a metal increases ….. falling temperature. 6. In a pure metal ….. room temperature, most resistance comes ……. the thermal vibration of the atoms. 7. A magnetic field is developed ……… the coil, when an electric current is passed …….. a coil. 8. The field increases ….. less than 1 percent, when a piece ……. copper is placed inside the coil. 9. This strong magnetic property is known ….. ferromagnetism. 10. When the piece of ferromagnetic metal is removed …... the coil, it retains some of this magnetism. 11. The sample will be useful …….. a permanent magnet, if the metal is hard 12. In most solids, the direction …… these moments is arranged ……... random. 13. That energy would be reduced if the sample broke up ……. domains. 14. The domains of one orientation grow …… the expense …….. others.