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Syntagmatic connections in word-groups: types of syntactic relations

Syntactic relations constitute a universal feature and are realized depending on the level of a word-phrase and a sentence. Word-forms having grammatical distinctions form varioussyntagmatic groupings based on dominational and equipotent connection. Domination is constructed in such a way that finds its realization in the two types:one-way domination andtwo-way domination. In the one-way domination one constituent isprincipal, dominating, called a head-word, the other issubordinate, dominated, called an adjunct-word. This structure forms syntactic relationsof subordination which falls into the two main divisions:objective subordinate connections; qualifying subordinate connections.The first unites the process withthe object – direct (e.g. visit a friend, make a call, attended the conference, answer a question) orindirect(e.g. gave him a gift, will write a letter to a friend, explained the rule to me, brings books for the sister).Qualifying connections are ofattributiveandadverbial type.Attributive connections unite a thing withits attribute eitherrestrictive (e.g. an interesting story, a pretty girl, an exciting trip) ornon-restrictive (e.g. a young woman, a ten-dollar-note, a wooden box, a blue colour). Adverbial connection is established between the process and its modifiers oradverbial modifiers such as time, place, manner, intensity, result, reason (e.g. is held tomorrow, arrived at the airport, sings beautifully, terribly interesting, too young to smoke, delayed because of the weather).So subordinate relations build up word-groups as secondary parts of the sentence which are otherwise called complements represented by attributes as noun complements, object and adverbial modifiers as verb complements.

The bilateralortwo-way domination creates apredicative connection of words occupying the positionof subjectandpredicate by formingpredicativesyntactic relations, which occur betweenthe process including action, state, feeling andits subject either personal or impersonal (e.g. he is running, they live, we have admired, it rained, it is interesting).Thus predicative relations make up the predication consisting of the principal parts of sentence: subject and predicate and are of the subtypes: Primary Predicative Relations and Secondary Predicative Relations.Primary predicationfinds its realization in the positionof subject and predicate in two-member sentences. Secondary predicative relations are formed by verbals insideinfinitival, participial and gerundial complexes:e.g. the nominative absolute participle construction (e.g. We could not go on with the work all the figures being checked. I had to ask for further details, some particulars missing); theobjective and subjective with the infinitive/participle constructions (e.g. I want him to study Arts. He is reported to have made a speech at the conference. I saw her crying. They were heard laughing); gerundial complexes (e.g. We insisted on taking the exam on Monday. Can we rely on your assistant’s doing it? It’s no use their complaining about it.)

The third syntagmatic grouping of words is constituted by word-forms related to one another on an equal rank, making up so calledequipotent or coordinative combinations. It means that domination is missing and words occupy syntactically equal positions which are expressed either syndeticallywith conjunctions, prepositions, orasyndetically with punctuation, word order, intonation:e.g. kept silent and listened; met but had no talk; playing, chatting, laughing.

Subordinate, predicative, coordinate syntactic relations determine distinguishingthree types of word-phrases: subordinate phrases as binary structures in which one of its constituents is syntactically the leading element originating suchsubordinate relations asobjective, attributive and adverbial modifying;subject and predicate,being explicit or implicit, are united by predicative relationswhich form predicative phrases; coordinate syntactic relations build up together immediate constituents of coordinate phrases consisting of two or more syntactically equivalent homogeneous elements.

4.3. Syntactic relations and ways of their expression

So words are syntagmatically connected by the grammatical syntactical relations which havegrammatical means of expressionin a word-phrase and the sentence in general.Rigid word order in English serves as a basic means of indicating commonly syntactic relation in the structure. Due to the scarcity of morphological devices, English has developed a fixed word order which in most cases shows the syntactic position of a word in a syntactic unit. That is why, in the English sentence the following rules are observed: the subject precedes the predicate; the noun is modified by the preceding attribute; the object follows the predicate; the adverbial modifier begins the sentence or stands at the end of it; homogeneous members follow each other.

Word order combined with intonation serves as a means of indicating the logical centre of the sentence, highlighting the syntactic status of its constituents. Syntactic relations may be also indicated by structural words, special connectors (prepositions or conjunctions): e.g. ‘Peter and Mary’ – shows the connecting conjunction ‘and’; ‘the owner of the house’ – the connection preposition ‘of’; the relations between ‘the children were laughing merrily’ are indicated not only by the order of the respective positions but also by inflexions. Thus the specific function is performed by agreement(or concord), government and adjoinment.

Agreementis based on formal correspondence between members of a syntactic group in person and number:when the headmakes the adjunct take a similar morphological form (e.g. this book – these books/that, those); the predicate must agree with the subject in person and number as well (e.g. radio and television have changed; the butter is; either Tom or Harry is coming; there is plenty of time; the police were). Government occurs when the form of the adjunct is predetermined by the head being nominal government(e.g. a key to the door, flowers in the garden)and verbal government when traditionally the object is to take the form required by the governing element, a verb (e.g. I saw him. I am his brother. We rely on them.) Adjoinmentfinds its expression in the adjoining position of two words joined by the common grammatical function and meaning without any change in morphological forms(e.g. a nice story, the country, rapidly recovered, valuable natural resources).

To summarize, relevant features concern not only types of syntactic relations between members of syntactic groups, but also ways of their expression which do exist with different degree of their realization such as: word order, function words, agreement, government, adjoinment, punctuation and intonation.

Key words:

categorial features as part of speechкатегориальные признаки как части речи


syntagmatically arrangedсинтагматически построены


sentence as a communicative unit предложение как коммуникативная единица

communicative purposeкоммуникативная целеустановка

Minor SyntaxМалый Синтаксис

Hyper SyntaxГиперсинтаксис

syntactic connectionсинтаксическая связь

syntactic relationsсинтаксические отношения

means of expressionсредства выражения

forms of predicationформы предикации

sentence as a predicative syntactic unitпредложение как предикативная синтаксическая единица

syntactic unitсинтаксическая единица

syntactic constants of the syntactic levelсинтаксические константы синтаксического уровня

syntactic meansсинтаксические средства связи

predication\predicative centreпредикация, предикативность\предикативный центр

syntagmatic connectionsсинтагматическая связь

types of syntactic relationsтипы синтаксических отношений

syntagmatic groupingsсинтагматически связанная группа слов

dominational connectionсинтаксическая связь с подчинением

equipotent connectionсинтаксическая связь с эквивалентностью

one-way dominationодносторонняя подчинительная связь

two-way dominationдвусторонняя подчинительная связь

principal\dominatingглавный\определяющий зависимость

head-wordглавное слово



subordination подчинение

objective subordinate connectionsобъектная подчинительная связь

qualifying subordinate connectionsквалификативная подчинительная связь

direct objectпрямой объект

indirect objectнепрямой\косвенный объект

attributive typeаттрибутивный тип

adverbial typeадвербиальный тип

attribute restrictiveопределение ограничительное

аttribute non-restrictiveопределение неограничительное

adverbial modifier обстоятельство

subordinate relationsподчинительные отношения

secondary parts of sentenceвторостепенные члены предложения

noun complementsкомплименты существительного

verb complementsкомплименты глагола

bilateral\two-way dominationдвусторонняя подчинительная связь

predicative connectionпредикативная связь

predicative syntactic relationsпредикативные синтаксические отношения

subject personalподлежащее личное

subject impersonalподлежащее безличное


principal parts of sentenceглавные члены предложения

Primary Predicative Relationsпредикативные отношения первичного уровня

Secondary PredicativeRelations предикативные отношения вторичного уровня

two-member sentenceдвусоставное предложение

equipotent\coordinative connectionsсочинительная связь на основе синтаксической эквивалентности

syntactically equal positionsсинтаксически эквивалентные позиции

syndetically expressedсоюзно формально выраженная связь

asyndetically expressedбессоюзная связь

coordinate syntactic relations сочинительные синтаксические отношения

subordinate phrasesфразы с подчинением

objective subordinate relationsобъектные подчинительные отношения

attributive subordinate relationsатрибутивные подчинительные отношения

adverbial modifying subordinate relationsобстоятельственные подчинительные отношения



explicitэксплицитное\формально выраженное как подлежащее или сказуемое

implicitимплицитное\не выраженное как подлежащее или сказуемое

predicative relationsпредикативные отношения

predicative phrasesпредикативные фразы

coordinate syntactic relationsсочинительные синтаксические отношения

coordinate phrases фразы с сочинением

homogeneous однородные

grammatical means of expressionграмматические средства выражения синтаксических отношений

rigid\fixed word orderфиксированный порядок слов

agreement of grammatical forms\concordсогласование грамматических форм


nominal government управление по именному компоненту

verbal government управление по глагольному компоненту



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