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Higher learning is just an overpriced, speculative investment that typically rewards graduates with dismal career prospects, says billionaire Peter Thiel




Billionaire libertarian businessman Peter Thiel, the founder and former CEO of PayPal, is perhaps best known as the venture capitalist who gave Facebook the angel investment it needed to really get started. But, increasingly, he's getting attention for his controversial views on higher learning. Last year, he launched the Thiel fellowship, which gives grants as large as $100,000 to 20 tech entrepreneurs who drop out of college by age 20 to pursue their own ideas. Then, in a National Review interview earlier this year, Thiel said that higher education is a "bubble in the classic sense," because education is "overpriced," something people have "an intense belief in," and an investment that's unlikely, in the majority of cases, to have a positive return. He made the point again last week at TechCrunch. Given the "financial disaster" of student loan debt surpassing credit card debt, does Thiel have a point?

No, education isn't about returns on an investment: The concept of the education bubble is based on horrifying, false logic, says Freddie deBoer at L'Hote. "To see an education, college or otherwise, as merely a way to increase the amount of money you make is a terrible corruption and fundamentally unsustainable." Increasing earning potential was never meant to be the sole purpose of education, and if it's reduced to that, we're all in trouble.

Well, collegeisoverpriced: College has gotten too expensive, with state governments cutting aid to public universities, says E.D. Kain in Forbes. But let's not abandon institutions of higher learning. If needed, we should raise taxes to make public universities more affordable. "Yes, education costs money. But that money should not fall squarely on the heads of middle class kids who are forced to take out tens of thousands in debt just to attend school."

And grad school is a particularly poor investment: College is still a good decision for most young Americans, but I can't say the same about grad school, says Conor Friedersdorf at The Atlantic. Grad school has become a socially acceptable way to drink beer, read, and go into massive debt in your 20s. "Upper-middle-class Americans tend to overvalue the non-financial benefits of grad school." Thiel's wrong about a lot. But at least he's "challenging the cultural assumptions that cause a lot of people to make bad life decisions."


Section 5. Picture

Опьянение.

 


UNIT 8

Section 1. Практикум Линн Виссон

Текст 16

Вопрос о национальном опыте в области народонаселения (ООН, 1998)

National Experience with Population Issues (UN, 1998)

(Читается с американским акцептом)

 

Госпожа Председатель, 1.Вопросы народонаселения занимают одно из высших местна шкале приоритетов Правительства Российской Федерации, по­скольку в последние годы демографическая ситуация в нашей стране может быть охарактеризована как кризисная. Ее основны­ми чертами являются:ухудшение здоровья и беспрецедентный рост смертности населения, особенно для трудоспособного воз­раста, стремительное снижение числа рождений, сохранение тенденции к уменьшению ожидаемой продолжительности жиз­ни, особенно у мужчин, высокая младенческая смертность, рост общей и повозрастной заболеваемости на фоне увеличения мас­штабов вынужденной миграции, старения и абсолютного сокра­щения численности населения.     Демографический кризис порожден рядомфакторов, к кото­рым нарядус общемировыми долговременными тенденциями снижения рождаемости можно отнести и специфические для России тенденции роста смертности и сокращения продолжи­тельности жизни. Непосредственное влияние на процессы разви­тия народонаселения оказывает социально-экономическая ситуа­ция в стране.     2.На сегодняшний день Россия переступила черту,за которой начинается депопуляция населения. Естественная убыль как главный показатель демографического неблагополучия сложи­лась в целом по стране с конца 1990 года. В 1993—96 гг. естест­венная убыль населения была зафиксирована в 69 регионах страны, а десять лет тому назад подобные явления отмечались лишь в трех регионах России.   Воспроизводство населения России находится на столь низ­ком уровне, что не обеспечивает дажепростого воспроизводства населения, необходимого для численного замещения поколения родителей их детьми. Об этом свидетельствуетнетто-коэффици­ент воспроизводства населения. Еслив 1989 г. он равнялся 0,953, то в 1996 г, - 0,603. Что касаетсяпричин смертности, то опыт России подтвержда­ет вывод об общем сдвиге соотношения причин смерти от инфек­ционных заболеваний в сторону неинфекционных хронических и приобретенных болезней, среди которых преобладают сердечно­сосудистые заболевания и злокачественные новообразования. Наибольшее число людей в России умирает от болезней системы кровообращения. Именноизменения смертности от сердечно-со­судистых заболеваний оказывают решающее влияниена общую смертность. В последние годы в результате нового сильного ростасмертность от несчастных случаев, отравлений и травм среди на­селения трудоспособного возраста, прежде всего мужчин, впер­вые превысила смертность от рака и является одной из негатив­ных черт современной демографической ситуации в России. При этом в России эволюция смертности от инфекционных болезней определяется, в основном, смертностью от туберкуле­за, в разные годы на ее долю приходилось от 70 до 90% всех смер­тейот инфекционных заболеваний у мужчин и от 40 до 70%, со­ответственно, у женщин. 3. Не последнюю рольиграет в развитии ситуации поведенческий фактор, в свою очередь зависящий и от политики по пропаганде здорового образа жизни. Некоторые позитивные сдвиги в 1995-96 гг. пока общей тенденции не изменили. Особенно выросла и стала одной из са­мых высоких в мире мужская смертность. На высоком уровне продолжают оставатьсядетская и материнская смертность. Начиная с 1995 г. также проявляются признаки увеличения ожидаемой продолжительности жизни: у мужчин и у женщин она постепенно вырастала, составляя у мужчин — 59,8 года, а у женщин — 72,5 года. Начали просматриватьсяобнадеживающие тенденции сниже­ния младенческой смертности: в 1996 г. коэффициент младенче­ской смертности составил 17,4, в 1997 — 16,9 случаев на 1000 родившихся. При этом имеющиеся данныене позволяют определить в должной степени длительность, глубину, региональную диф-ференцированность, структуру и последствия демографического кризиса и воздействие на него внешних факторов. Важнейшей задачей в этой связи становится выяснениеистин­ной и достоверной информации в сфере народонаселения. Важ­нейшим источником такой информации остается перепись населения. В этом контекстемы хотели бы поддержать мысль о том, что без достоверных статистических данных и индикато­ров невозможно формировать адекватную политику в области народонаселения. При формулировании демографической стратегии России правительство стремится к расширению кругасвоих партнеров, активно вовлекая в работу в т.ч. и общественные объединения и неправительственные организации. Благодарю вас за внимание. Madam Chairwoman, 1. Population issues are one of the most important/crucial/аге among the most importantpriorities of the government of the Russian Federation, since/because in recent years the demographic situation in our country/has been in a state of crisis/can with reason be called critical/has deteriorated badly.The major elements/factorsare: the deterioration in/worsening of/the health of and an unprecedented rise in the mortality of the population, in particular for people of working age, a sharp drop/decline in the number of births, the continuation/ maintenance of a/downward trend/decline/in life expectancy, particularly among men, a rise in/increase in general and in age-specific/ age-related morbidity given/due to/along with greater/an increase in/ forced migration, aging and an absolute decline/reduction in the numbers of the population. The demographic crisis has been caused by/has resulted from/is caused by a number offactors, including/compounded by/consisting of/ in addition toa global/worldwide/long-term trend towards a decline in the birth rate with/and a trend specific to Russia of a rise in mortality and a reduction in life expectancy. A direct impact/influence on population processes is being exerted by the socio-economic situation in the country/Population processes("development" can be omitted) are subject to the effects of the country's socio-economic situation./ The socio-economic situation in the country is having a direct impact on the processes of population development. 2. Russia has already reached the point of depopulation/crossed the line where depopulation begins.A natural decline as the major indicator of demographic problems began emerging/was noted/for the country as a whole from the end of 1990 on/starting at the end of 1990. From 1993-96 a natural decline in the population was noted/ observed/recorded/in 69 regions of the country, while/though/ten years ago such phenomena were observed only in three regions of Russia. Reproduction of the population in Russia is at such a low level that it does not even provide for/ensure/result in/producethat simple reproduction of the population needed for numerical replacement of the generation of parents by their children. This is borne out/attested to/shown/provedby the net coefficient of reproduction of the population required for numerical replacement of the parents' generation by their children. (While)in 1989 it was at 0,593, in 1996 it/the figure/was 0.603. Regarding/concerning/as formortality factors, Russia's experience backs/confirms/the conclusion as to a general shift in the ranking of mortality causes/factors/from infectious diseases towards non-infectious chronic and acquired diseases, primarily/predominantly/mostly/ cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumors. The largest/greatest/ number of people in Russia are dying from circulatory illnesses. And/it is/It is in fact/precisely/thechanges in mortality from cardiovascular diseases which are exerting a decisive impact/impacting decisivelyon general mortality. In recent years as the result of a strong new upward trend,mortality from accidents, poisoning and trauma among the population of working age, in particular/primarily/men, for the first time has exceeded mortality from cancer and is one of the negative factors/features/of the demographic situation in Russia. Moreover/at the same time/however, mortality in Russia from infectious diseases is mainly/primarily due to tuberculosis, which in various years has accounted for from 70 to 90% of all deathsfrom infectious diseases among men and from 40-70% among women. 3. An important rolein the development of this situation is being played by/can be attributed to/the behavioral factor, which in turn depends on policy (designed) to promotea healthy life style. Several positive changes/developments in 1995-97 have not yet/as of now/resulted/led to/changes in the general trend/have not changed the general trend. In particular, there has been an increase in male mortality, making it one of the highest rates in the world/There has been a particularly striking growth — and now one of the highest rates in the world is that of male mortality. Child and maternal mortality continues to remain at a high level/There continued to be a high level of child and maternal mortality. Back in 1995/Already in 1995/starting in 1995/there were signs of an increase in life expectancy: among men and women it has gradually been rising/there has been a gradual rise among men and women, 59.8 years for men and 72.5 for women. There has been the beginning of the emergence/We have seen the beginnings of/There has been a startof/encouraging trends through a drop in infant mortality: in 1996 the coefficient for infant mortality was 17.4, and in 1997 - 16.9 cases per 1000 births. The available/existing data,however, do not allow for an appropriate/proper/accurate determination of the length, intensity,regional differentiation, structure and consequences of the demographic crisis and the impact on it of external factors. A vital/critically important/crucial/objective/taskhere is to obtain/extract/produce/true and reliable information in the field of population. An extremely important source of such information is the census. Here/in this connection/in this contextwe would like to support/back the idea/notion that without reliable statistical data and indicators it is impossible to formulate/make/draw up proper policy in the field of population. In formulating Russia's demographic policy the government is attempting/trying to increase/expand the number/rangeof its partners, and is actively involving in this work (inter alia) social/public organizations and non-governmental organizations. Thank you.

 

Section 2. Phrasal Verbs

 

 

PUT

1. I would like to be put through to your dean. 2. In our district fruit trees put forth buds and leaves very early. 3. Don't put off your work till tomorrow. 4. She talked like a machine-gun. I just couldn't put in a word. 5. To be able to buy that fur-coat you must put down your expenses at once. 6. Put it out of your head, or there will be no end of torture for both of us. 7. Though she puts on proud airs she is just a nonentity. 8. How much of vitamins does your laboratory put out annually? 9. I believe we can put you up for the week-end. 10. I've managed to put through in spite of your ill-will. 11. He put out his right hand and caressed the fair head of the little boy. 12. His ignorance is put on. 13. He can't put up with his step-mother and his step-sister. 14. If you put by some money regularly you'll be able to buy a tape-recorder by next year. 15. Put yourself in her place! It's all as bad as bad can be. 16. He was put out by such a cold reception of the audience. 17. Put him right if you believe he needs correction. 18. Will you put aside (down) your book while I'm speaking to you?   1. I would like to be put in connection with your dean. 2. In our district fruit trees send out buds and leaves very early. 3. Don't postpone your work till tomorrow. 4. She talked like a machine-gun. I just couldn't utter a word. 5. To be able to buy that fur-coat you must cut your expenses at once. 6. Forget it, or there will be no end of torture for both of us. 7. Though she assumes proud airs she is just a nonentity. 8. How much of vitamins does your labora­tory produce annually? 9. I believe we can give you a bed for the week-end. 10. I've managed to succeed in spite of your ill-will. 11. He stretched out his right hand and caressed the fair head of the little boy. 12. His ignorance is sheer pretence. 13. He can't stand his step-mother and his step-sister. 14. If you save some money regu­larly you'll be able to buy a tape-recorder by next year. 15. Imagine yourself in her place! It's all as bad as can be. 16. He was discour­aged by such a cold reception of the audience. 17. Correct him if you believe he needs correction.18. Will you lay aside your book while I am speaking to you?

 


Section 3. Typical Drill

Упражнение 1. Read and boil down the story to one sentence.

1.Marvel Comics has unveiled a new half-black, half-Latino Spider-Man, who replaces the recently killed-off Peter Parker. Parker died in Ultimate Spider-Man Issue 160 in June during a fight with his bitter enemy, Green Goblin. Like Parker, Morales is a geeky, working-class teenager from the boroughs of New York City. Morales lives with his black and Latino parents in ethnically diverse Brooklyn, while Parker was white and raised by his aunt and uncle in a mainly white neighbourhood in Queens. The Marvel editor-in-chief, whose mother was from England and father from Mexico, said he cried when Barack Obama was elected president "partly because he was African-American but largely because of the fact that he was mixed race".

2. Traditionally, this poison has been used by hunters to kill elephants. the African crested rat chews the roots and bark of a highly toxic tree, and then smears the lethal mixture on its specially adapted fur. Any animals that attack receive a mouthful of potentially deadly poison. It is the first time that this behaviour has been reported in a mammal, the researchers writeBut the team, from the UK, Kenya and New York, are still puzzled by how the rodent is able to survive a dose of the toxin, which comes from the poison arrow tree

4. Visitors to a leading theme park have been complaining about the bad breath of fellow passengers as they scream their way through the rides. Thorpe Park in Surrey has now decided to offer a mouthwash to customers after receiving an increasing number of complaints, especially as temperatures have risen in recent weeks. Garlic and cigarettes are the most common odours causing the biggest stink.

5. Earth may once have had two moons, the one that shines at night today and a smaller companion, according to a new theory. A collision between the two is believed to have created the mountainous highlands on the moon's far side that have long puzzled scientists. The side of the moon facing the Earth and the side facing away have strikingly different topographies.

6. Tourist shops in Scotland's capital have been banned from playing loud bagpipe music out into the streets. Edinburgh City Council environmental officers began patrolling the city's "tartan shops" this week to make sure traders do not break rules which came into force on Monday. The ban follows complaints about some retailers playing loud bagpipe music through speakers outside their shops. Complaints were also made about rails and baskets of products blocking the pavement.

7.The world's "most expensive and exclusive" potatoes are to go on sale across the UK for the first time this week at a major supermarket.The variety, La Bonnotte, which is normally only grown on a small island off France, can sell for up to £400 per kilogram.However, Tesco has sourced a new supply, grown on Jersey, and will be selling them from Tuesday for the equivalent of £2.65 per kilo.

8.A woman who dressed like a man and drew a beard on her face has robbed an Alabama bank, authorities said. Police said the suspect robbed the Cottondale branch of the Bank of Tuscaloosa and she may have been involved in another bank heist earlier this month. Witnesses told officers she had a "drawn on" beard when she entered the bank. Police said she told tellers she had a bomb and demanded money after placing a device on a counter.

9.The emergence and decline of gigantic flying insects millions of years ago may have been linked to the amount of oxygen available to their water-breathing young, new research has suggested.

Scientists studying the smaller modern-day descendants of the huge creatures, which included dragonflies with wingspans of almost a metre, believe they have solved a question which has puzzled experts for more than 100 years by looking at their larvae, which live in water. They believe that larvae 300 million years ago took advantage of the higher oxygen levels available, using it to help fuel their growth to the size shown in ossilized remains found by palaeontologists today.

10. From time to time, life here on Earth is rudely disturbed by the unexpected arrival of something from out of the heavens. They may tumble from a height of merely few hundred feet; they may plummet from outer space itself. Consider the recent story of the residents of Beebe, a village in the US state of Arkansas, whose new year celebrations were interrupted by the sudden appearance of thousands of blackbirds falling to their death (pictured).The deceased birds were "littering the streets, the yards, the driveways, everywhere", according to Robby King, a county wildlife officer. "It was hard to drive down the street in some places without running over them."

 


Section 4. Have Your Say

Facing up to Germany's past, or a homage to Hitler?

The ‘Hitler and the Germans’ exhibition is held at the German History Museum, just opposite the Brandenburg Gate. Such an exhibition, in such a place, could not escape criticism and controversy. Some warn it will become a shrine for neo-Nazis. Others accuse museum authorities of seeking to glorify a tyrant.

Comments:

1. Linda from Italy wrote: Whats wrong with a museum exhibition? Of course history, wars and all, has to be taught, and museums should be regarded as another learning tool. Naturally just as in Russia there are some nutters who idolize Stalin, there are neo-Nazis in many European countries, not just Germany and Austria. But pandering to fear of such sociopaths implies they have won.

2. No_Thanks wrote: I feel the Germans should feel proud about having the guts to stare at their past and acknowledge it for what it is. It's just a pity that the Japanese are so gutless about theirs. I wonder how the Americans will approach their mass-murder spree in Iraq and their torture camp in Gitmo in the future.

3. Sir Digby Chicken Caesar wrote: Does the exhibition address the American Conservatives who were in support of Hitler during the 1930s? Charles Lindbergh, Henry Ford, the Bush family, etc? Does it show the Bush families' financing of Hitler during the 1930s? There were plenty of people who had sympathies with the Nazis in many other countries. In the UK, that had the Union of British Fascists, with Oswald Mosely. The short reigned King Edward VII's wife, Wallace Simpson, was a rather large fan of Hitler, and she and her husband would visit him. I noticed you of course don't mention the Soviet Union. Without the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, Germany wouldn't have been able to start WW2, and with assurances that the USSR wouldn't attack, Germany invaded Poland (with the USSR invading Poland as well shortly later), and the war began. I thought I would bring up the things you obviously were hoping nobody was aware of.

4. Tom D Ford wrote: There is a well documented history of the American Conservatives support and financing of the "Corporate State" that Hitler and Mussolini tried to impose on the world. We ought to ask ourselves questions like: Would Hitler have been less bold and aggressive about waging war like he did if American Conservatives had not supported him? How many fewer Jews would have been killed if American Conservatives had not supported Hitler? How many extra American GIs were eventually killed because American Conservatives had supported Hitler? Let us remind ourselves that WW2 was a fight to defeat the Axis attempt to dominate the world through their imposition of the Corporate State and was not fought to free, or stop the killing of the Jewish peoples. Fortunately and in spite of American Conservatives, we won that war. And liberated those concentration camps. And let's remind ourselves that it was essentially American Liberals, the GIs, who defeated the Axis, defeated the Hitler and Mussolini politics that American Conservatives had supported in the 1930s. Let's learn from the past. We ought "Never Again" allow the rise of Corporate Power into the "Corporate State".

5. Linda from Italy wrote: As a Brit, I am only too aware of the thunderous applause from what was then the Brit “upper class” that greeted Mussolini’s rise to power in Italy in the 20s, the “trains run on time” remark was made about him. This support for Fascism in various guises grew among those same classes with the rise of Franco in Spain and Hitler in Germany, seen as a counterbalance to the “threat” of socialism. Many of these despicable people also went along with the persecution of the Jews and it was only when the bombs started falling on London that they suddenly came over all patriotic. My remark in an earlier post about the failure of many citizens of other European counties to face up to greater or lesser degrees of complicity would also include those early supporters of Fascism in the US and UK. The problem with the simplistic good against evil depiction of WW2: wicked Germans/Japanese vs utterly saintly everyone else, with the exception of the Russians of course, is that it allows people to continue denying the facts and thus makes it even less likely that people and nations will learn from history. The “my country right or wrong” attitude is extremely dangerous as it precludes any kind of rational reflection and critical thinking about our own past and it may be that this museum, whose theme, Hitler and the Germans, delves into how ordinary German citizens really felt about Hitler is the last, and most crucial stage in that process, meaning that perhaps Germany is the only country that has really faced up to its past.

6. PilotDan wrote: Germans threw away their rights and democratic institutions for a perceived illusion of a soon to be better economy and security. 9 years later they had nothing having lost everything languishing in the utter destruction of their nation and infrastructure and now are branded throughout time as mass murderers. Had it not been for the United States of that day, Germany would be lost in a thousand years of Communist rule. We are seeing the same fascist seeds planted today in other countries throughout the world, most especially in the United States. Here economic despair and fear of terrorism are making people sacrifice their freedom for an economic stability and a perceived security that makes our police oppressors. That should be the theme of the exhibit.

7. ghostofsichuan wrote:You may wish to remember that Hitler and his gang appeared after the banks and investors had caused, until now, the greatest financial collapse in history. As with now, the governments had no solutions other than to save the wealthy. History is often forgotten or twisted by politicians to meet their needs. There is no record of people learning from history. "Those who forget history are doomed to repeat it". Some little museum will matter little in the scheme of things....bankers may occasionally visit to pay homage to what they would consider as better times....much cheaper to buy off a single dictator than some elected body.

8.Abdelilah Boukili in Morocco wrote: Facts must be seen as facts first. Then they can be interpreted it according to modern thinking. It's the evaluation and interpretation of history that make of a leader a hero or a villain. Understandably, the Germans have been educated in considering Hitler as a shameful figure because of his wars and unjustified killings; especially of Jews. Now they have the right to see this figure in a new light, in a place reserved for art. If they aren't fascinated by Dracula, so why should be fascinated by Hitler who did his utmost for the glory of the German race, but ended defeated? Hitler remains a historic figure for the neo-Nazis who are among living Germans and who should be dealt with currently. Perhaps, the most frightening trend in Europe is the encroaching far-right, which is not exclusive just to Germany, but almost everywhere from Russia to France. Historically, there were many bloody leaders. Hitler is one of them. Perhaps this museum should remind the Germans and the world what Hitler was all about and to avoid the repeat of the catastrophes he was behind.

9. steve550103 wrote: Don't forget the strong feelings against the perceived sense of loss and injustice felt by many people in Germany as the result of their defeat during WWI. It is often said that WWII was really the continuation of WWI.

10.Tanja wrote: Let's face it, we aren't allowed to forget something like Hitler, nor should we be allowed. I can't help but feel that I should be sorry for what my grandfather did, even if he was only a 16 year old soldier. He may had to fight. However I just feel sorry for all the suffering people had to endure because we didn't manage to free us of Hitler on our own and because we let this happen to us, our government and society. And I believe it's ok to feel like that, because to say that it's history and to "get over" it means to belittle what happened to so many people. When you feel sorry for something, you won't forget it. You won't let it happen again.

11. sudhir mittal wrote: Nothing can justify events like the holocaust. In Germany or elsewhere. In small or big numbers. But an Indian would rather view him as the character of 'Ravana' in the great Hindu epic Ramayana. A stupendous acuity of thought on the human situation, a very wide sweep of scholarship, deep sensitivities towards the fine arts, a very rich inner life which was religious in his own way, a belly burning with fire to change his motherland Germany and a sense of divine mission. All of this was topped with a boundless energy and a ruthless determination. I think he occupied the ground between a mystic and a statesman. This may sound like glorifying Hitler. But for centuries, anyone who approaches him with an open and independent mind, cannot but be fascinated.


Section 5. Picture

Награды


UNIT 9

Section 1. Практикум Линн Виссон

Текст 17

Вопрос о положении женщин: Национальные планы действия (ООН,1998)

The Status of Women: National Plans of Action (1998)

(Читается в нормальном темпе с индийским акцентом и в быстром с британским акцентом)

 

Господин Председатель, 1.Содержавшаясяв Платформе действий Пекинской конфе­ренции рекомендацияпринять в кратчайшие срокинациональ­ные планы действия по улучшению положения женщин была положительно воспринятав Российской Федерации, где к этому моменту уже стала очевидной необходимость выработки новых концептуальных подходов к проблеме обеспечения равных прав и возможностей мужчин и женщин в условиях перехода к рыночной экономике. Утвержденнаяв январе 1996 года Концепцияулучшения по­ложения женщин стала документом, заложившим теоретические основы и определившим стратегические цели деятельности пра­вительства по претворению в жизнь конституционного положе­ния о равноправии мужчин и женщин в Российской Федерации. Принятыйв августе 1996 года национальный план действийпо улучшению положения женщин и повышению их роли в общест­ве до 2000 года в свою очередь расширил и дополнил положения Концепции конкретными практическими шагами государствен­ных структур по достижению сформулированных в ней целей.   2.С одной стороны, экономические преобразования в странах с переходной экономикой открыли перед женщинами новые го­ризонты, дали возможность по-новому реализовать себя,а с дру­гой - солидные издержкирыночных реформ больнее всего ска­зываются именно на женщинах: усиливается феминизация бед­ности, растет женская безработица, ухудшается здоровье женщи­ны.Нас беспокоят негативные демографические процессы: сни­жение рождаемости, низкие показатели ожидаемой продолжи­тельности жизни, высокие цифры смертности населения, осо­бенно в трудоспособном возрасте, негативные тенденции в ре­продуктивном здоровье. Снизился уровеньзанятости женщин, среди безработных 60% составляют женщины. Говоря о нравст­венном состоянии общества, следует отметить факты жестокого обращения в семье и насилия в отношении женщин. Проблемы безработицы, проблемы положения женщин и мно­гие другие общественные вопросы носят глобальный характер.Массовая хроническая безработица бьет и по тем,кто смог найти работу. Ведь угроза быть выброшенным за ворота вынуждает их мириться с произволом предпринимателей. Так, по данным МОТ, предприниматели, как правило, платят молодым работникам 40-50% от зарплаты взрослых за аналогичную работу. Незанятость значительной части молодого поколения явля­ется первопричиной многих социальных зол.Лишенные возмож­ности трудиться, молодые люди начинают ощущать свою отчуж­денность, ненужность обществу. А это, в конечном итоге, ведет к росту наркомании, преступности, проституции. 3. И не надо забывать о том,что сегодня средства массовой ин­формации обладают огромным потенциалом воздействия на об­щественное сознание. Это особенно ощутимо сегодня, когда международные отношения все больше становятся делом не только профессиональных дипломатов, но и широких слоев ми­ровой общественности, когда гласность, информированность становятся обязательным условием и ускорителем демократиза­ции международной жизни. Конкретным результатомработы в части улучшения положе­ния женщин стали предпринимаемые меры по обеспечению занятости женщин. Принятыгенеральное трехстороннее согла­шение между правительством, работодателями и профсоюзами, программа поддержки и развития малого предпринимательства. Проводится опережающее обучение работников,находящихся под угрозой увольнения, осуществляется социальная адаптация безработных. Организованапрофессиональная переподготовка безработных женщин, оказывается содействие в трудоустройст­ве оканчивающим высшие учебные заведения. Социальная помощь переходит на строгую адресность. Проблемы положения женщин носят глобальный характер. Огромное значение для успешной реализации Пекинских доку­ментов имеет солидарность женщин, тесное сотрудничество правительственных и общественных структур.     Спасибо, господин Председатель. Mr. Chairman, 1.The recommendation containedin the Platform of Action of the Beijing Conference/That/Something/What is containedin the Platform of Action of the Beijing Conference, namely/that is/I mean/ I am referring to the recommendation/toadopt as soon as possible/in the very nearfuture/national plans of action to improve the status of women, has the approval of/was approved by/meets with the approvalof/the Russian Federation, where there already is a clear need to/where the need is evident/obvious/clear to draw up/produce/work out/for drawing up/producing/working out/new conceptual approaches to (the problem of) ensuring equal rights and opportunities for men and women in conditions of/during/the transition to a market economy. The concept which was approved/adopted/That/Something which was approved/adoptedin 1996, namely/I mean/that is/the concept for the improvement of the status of women became a document which laid the theoretical foundations/bases/and determined/defined the strategic goals for the activities of the government in implementing constitutional provisions regarding the equality of men and women in the Russian Federation. The national plan of action adoptedin August 1996 to improve the status of women and enhance their role in society by the year 2000 in turn has expanded and supplemented the provisions of the Concept through specific practical steps/actions/by state institutions to implement the goals/objectives it contains contained in it/its goals/objectives. 2. The economic transformations/changes in countries with transition economies have opened up new horizons/opportunities/for women, have provided new opportunities for self-fulfillment/self-rea-lization/and,on the other hand, the major burden/costs/ofmarket reforms are impacting most of all/are most intensively felt/born/ experienced by women: there has been a rise/increase in female poverty, a growth of women's/female unemployment and a deterioration of women's health.We are concerned about the negative demographic processes: a drop/decline in the birth rate, low life expectancy indicators, high mortality figures for the population, especially of working age, and negative trends in reproductive health. There has been a drop/decline in the levelof female employment, and 60% of the unemployed are women/women account for 60% of the unemployed. In speaking of the moral state of society, we should take note of incidents/cases of harsh/brutal behavior/treatment/within the family and of violence against women. The problem of unemployment, the problem of the status of women and many other social issues are global in nature/universal/ widespread.Mass and chronic unemployment also strikes/affects/ those who have found work. This is because/For/the threat of being fired/dismissed/downsized/let go/forces them to put up with/accept the arbitrary will/whims/of entrepreneurs. Thus, according to ILO data, entrepreneurs as a rule pay young workers (some) 40-50% of the salaries paid to adults for similar/such/identical/work. Unemployment of a significant part of the younger generation is the root/primary/underlying/primary/major/cause/reason for/of many social ills/problems/issues.Deprived of the possibility to work, young people begin to experience/feel/alienation/a feeling of alienation, that they are useless to society. And this ultimately/finally/in the last analysis leads to an increase in drug addiction, crime and prostitution. 3. Nor should we forget/And we should not forget/it should not be forgotten/there should be no forgettingthat today the mass media have enormous potential for impacting on/influencing public opinion. This/is particularly true/makes itself particularly felt/today, when international relations are increasingly becoming a matter/subject/ affair/field not only for/professional diplomats but also for broad strata/ a wide range/of world public opinion, when glasnost and the availability of information are becoming a prerequisite/sine qua поп and a catalyst for the democratization of international life. A specific resultof work to improve the status of women are the measures undertaken to ensure/provide female employment. There has been/we have seen the adoptionof a general tripartite agreement between the government, employers and trade unions, and of a program of support and development for small enterprises. Intensive/sophisticated /state of the art/advanced trainingis being carried out/conducted for workers who are in danger of/threatened with/vulnerable to/dismissal /downsizing, and there are programs for social adaptation of the unemployed. We have seen the organization of/There has been the organizationof/professional retraining of unemployed women, and assistance is being rendered/given to help graduates of universities/ institutes of higher learning/university graduates/find jobs. Social assistance is now becoming carefully/specifically targeted. The problems of the status of women are in fact/indeed/truly global/universal/in nature/are global/universal.Very important/of enormous significance/A major factor/for the successful implementation of the Beijing documents is the solidarity of women, and also close cooperation between governmental and public organizations/ institutions. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.  

 

Section 2. Phrasal Verbs

 

SET

1. He set forth his views as soon as he joined us. 2. If I were you I wouldn't set him on against his poor brother. 3. So far as I remember that building was set up when I was quite a boy. 4. He set his pupils to work at once. 5. The hot season set in last month. 6. I strongly advise you to set to writing your composition tonight unless you want to lag behind your class. 7. She sets up for a film star. 8. Will you set these tickets aside for me? I'm so eager to at­tend the concert. 9. He tried to have the contract set aside because conditions had changed. 10. Her crown is set with precious jewels. 11. The law sets down that speed limits must be obeyed. 12. How do you set about building a boat? 13. The rumour was set about by one of your relatives, no doubt. 14. He set down his achievements to his unceasing efforts.   1.He proclaimed his views as soon as he joined us. 2. If I were you I wouldn't urge him on to oppose his poor brother. 3. So far as I remember that building was erected when I was quite a boy. 4. He made his pupils work at once. 5. The hot season began last month. 6. I strongly advise you to begin writing your composi­tion tonight unless you want to lag behind your class. 1. She pro-jesses to be a film star. 8. Will you reserve these tickets for me? I'm eager to attend the concert. 9. He tried to avoid the contract because conditions had changed. 10. Her crown is inlaid with precious jewels. The law says that speed limits must be obeyed. 12. What about building a boat? 13. The rumour was disseminated by one of your relatives, no doubt. 14. He put down his achievements to his unceasing efforts.  

 

Section 3. Typical Drill

 

1. Guess the NOUN via "Is it + adjective" questions

Guess a noun. Other students try to discover the noun with the help of only YES/NO questions.

Questions to ask opposing team(s): Is it big / round /square / rectangular/hard / soft / high / tall / low? Is there one in this room? Can we eat it? Is it made of wood / plastic / metal? Is it small/yellow/light/dark/circular? Have you one in your house / country? Do you like it? Is it used every day? Is it larger than a....? Can I see one now? Do you find it indoors or outdoors? Is it liquid or solid? Have you got one in your house / with you? Your own questions.


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