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III. GRAMMAR PRACTICE
Gerund or Infinitive?
1. USE Ving (not + Ving) after:
stop, finish, delay, postpone, fancy, imagine, consider, avoid, admit, deny, miss, risk, involve, practise, regret, give up, put off, carry on, go on, keep, keep on, think of.
For you to remember!
1. After enjoy, mind, suggestuse onlyVing.
2. When you are talking about finished actions you canuse having + Participle II
(but it is not absolutely necessary)
E.g. She admitted having stolen the money. = She admitted stealing the money.
Now I regret having insulted him. = Now I regret insulting him.
2. USE infinitive (not+ infinitive) after:
offer, agree, refuse, decide, plan, arrange, deserve, afford, forget, attempt, manage, fail, promise, threaten, seem, appear, tend, pretend, claim, dare, want. expect, ask, beg, would like(love), prefer.
For you to remember!
1. a)We use Ving for an action that happens beforethe action expressed by the verb or at the same time.
E.g. I denied stealing the money = Я отрицала, что украла эти деньги.
b) We often use infinitive for an action that followsthe action expressed by the verb.
E.g. We decided to steal the money=Мы решили украсть эти деньги.
2. Often the use of Ving or infinitive changes the meaning of the sentence.
E.g. He stopped looking at the coming bus. = 1) Он остановился, глядя на приближающийся автобус. 2) Он перестал смотреть на приближающийся автобус
He stopped to look at the coming bus. = Он остановился, чтобы посмотреть на приближающийся автобус.
Need to do = it is necessary to do
Need doing = something needs to be done.
3. After love, hate, bear (can’t bear) you can use both: Vingandinfinitive.
E.g. I love meeting people. = I love to meet people.
Exercise 10. Complete each sentence with a suitable verb.
1 Don't forget ...to post... the letter I gave you.
2 There was a lot of traffic but we managed…to the airport in time.
3 Jill has decided not…a car.
4 We've got a new computer in our office. I haven't learnt…it yet.
5 I wonder where Sue is. She promised not…late.
6 We were all too afraid to speak. Nobody dared…anything.
Exercise11. Use infinitive or Ving.
When I'm tired, I enjoy watching television. It's relaxing. (watch)
1. It was a nice day, so we decided…for a walk. (go)
2. It's a nice day. Does anyone fancy…for a walk? (go)
3. I'm not in a hurry. I don't mind…(wait)
4. They don't have much money. They can't afford…out very often. (go)
5. I wish that dog would stop… (bark). It's driving me mad.
6. Our neighbour threatened…the police if we didn't stop the noise. (call)
7. We were hungry, so I suggested…dinner early. (have)
8. Hurry up! I don't want to risk…the train. (miss)