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B) object





Natalie likes driving a car. = Натали нравится водить машину. (Ей нравится, когда она сама ведет машину)

c) part of a predicate( after such verbs as: to begin, to start, to continue, to go on, to stop, to finish)

He suddenly stopped playing the piano and looked at me. = Он перестал играть на пианино и посмотрел на меня.

d) attribute ( with “of” before it)

You have forgotten the main rules of reading. = Ты забыл основные правила чтения.

e) adverbialmodifier (with a preposition before it)

On hearing the news he got very angry = Услышав новость, он очень рассердился.

On arriving home he asked Tom to bring him the magazine. = По приезде домой он попросил Тома принести ему журнал.

PARTICIPLE Imay be:

a) part of a predicate (verbs in progressive aspect)

They are playing in the garden with Natalie and Alison. = Они играют в саду с Натали и Элисон.

b) adverbialmodifier (without a preposition before it)

Driving the car Natalie enjoys it greatly. = Когда Натали ведет машину, ей это очень нравится.

Going down the street he met his history teacher. = Идя по улице, он встретил своего учителя истории.

C) part of complex object

David felt somebody touching him by the hand. = Давид почувствовал, как кто-то трогает его за руку.

D) attribute

Put the egg into the boiling water. = Положи яйцо в кипящую воду.

 

For Your Information!

Don’t confuse simple gerunds with nouns. Nouns are used with articles, they may be preceded by attributes, have plural forms and possessive case, and of course, all of them may be found in a dictionary.

 

Exercise 10. Define ing-forms in the sentences below and state their functions.

1. The book was so exciting that I couldn’t stop rending.

2. After watching the documentary on global warming I felt a bit depressed.

3. His feeling of self-confidence is too strong and sometimes irritates me.

4. Failing my driving test was one of the most disappointing experiences in my life.

5. Do you know the woman talking to Tom?

6. It was an exciting incident, no wonder she is still speaking about it.

7. Tom’s breathing was so hard that the doctor insisted on his immediate hospitalizing.

8. While returning home he met his schoolmate who now lived abroad and came to their native town very seldom.

9. All my friends admired her dancing.

10. On hearing such an exciting news he stopped reading and raised his head from the book.

Exercise 11. Find gerunds in the sentences below (be careful not to confuse them with participles and verbal nouns). Translate them into Russian. Analyze the possible ways of translating gerunds.

1. Getting on well with colleagues, as anyone who works in an office knows, is a vital element in our working lives.

2. Many office jobs involve a great deal of time spent talking.

3. Are there any ‘rules of relationships’ that might be useful as general markers of what to do and what not to do in your dealings with others?

4. If a person you are talking to has completely stopped looking at you and appears transfixed by the flowers in the window-box, it means shut up.

5. As well as these general guidelines for keeping good relationships, Argyle and his associates questioned people about rules that apply very specifically to work settings.

6. Be cooperative with regard to the shared physical working conditions.

7. Work cooperatively despite feelings of dislike.

8. Don’t display hypocritical liking.

9. Another approach to resolving interpersonal conflicts is increasing the amount of communication between those involved, so that each side comes to understand and to trust the other more.

10. Trying to get to know the other person a bit more is really quite a good approach

Exercise 12 Translate into English using the vocabulary of the text and gerunds:

Хорошие отношения с коллегами являются важным элементом нашей жизни на работе. Иногда мы испытываем трудности в обращении с людьми. Существует ряд простых правил, которые стоит запомнить:

- привыкните честно выполнять вашу долю работы;

- избегайте обсуждать то, что было доверено вам конфиденциально;

- помните, что, с одной стороны, никому не доставит удовольствия публичная критика, с другой стороны, никто не станет возражать против похвалы за хорошую работу;

- перестаньте курить, слишком много говорить и быть чрезмерно любопытным в рабочей обстановке;

- не возражайте, если вас просят о помощи или обращаются за советом;

- не отказывайтесь провести вместе досуг и никогда не упускайте шанс больше общаться, приходя тем самым к большему пониманию;

- работайте сообща, несмотря на чувство неприязни;

- не забывайте, что люди терпеть не могут, когда их порочат за спиной;

- не бойтесь говорить комплименты, но никогда не демонстрируйте лицемерную любовь;

Если вы запомните эти правила, у вас никогда не возникнет проблем в общении с другими людьми.

 

Exercise 13. Read the text below, define ing-forms, make a list of additional “rules of relationships”:

Leaning forward slightly while a person is talking to you indicates interest on your part, and shows you are listening to what the person is saying. This is usually taken as a compliment by the other person, and will encourage him to continue talking.

Often people will lean back with their hands over their mouth, chin, or behind their head in the “thinking” pose. This posture gives off signals of judgment, skepticism, and boredom from the listener. Since most people do not feel comfortable when they think they are being judged, this leaning-back posture tends to inhibit the speaker from continuing.

It’s far better to lean forward slightly in a casual and natural way. By doing this, you are saying: ‘I hear what you are saying, and I’m interested – keep talking!’ This usually lets the other person feel that what he is saying is interesting, and encourages him to continue speaking.

In many cultures the most acceptable form of first contact between two people who are just meeting is a warm handshake. This is true when meeting members of the same or opposite sex – and not just in business, but in social situations, too. In nearly every situation, a warm and firm handshake is a safe and positive way of showing an open and friendly attitude toward the people you meet. Be the first to extend your hand in greeting. Couple this with a friendly ‘Hello!’, a nice smile, and your name, and you have made the first step to open the channels of communication between you and the other person.

The strongest of the nonverbal gestures are sent through the eyes. Direct eye contact indicates that you are listening to the other person, and that you want to know about him/her.

Eye contact should be natural and not forced or overdone. It is perfectly okay to have brief periods of eye contact while you observe other parts of the person’s face – particularly the mouth. When the person smiles, be sure to smile back. But always make an effort to return your gaze to the person’s eye as he/she speaks. It is common to look up, down, and all around when speaking to others, and it’s acceptable not to have eye contact at all times.

Too much eye contact, especially if it is forced, can be counterproductive. If you stare at a person, or leer in a suspicious manner, the other person may feel uncomfortable and even suspicious about your intentions. A fixed stare can appear as aggressive behavior if it takes the form of a challenge as to who will look away first.







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Studopedia.info - Студопедия - 2014-2022 год . (0.023 сек.) русская версия | украинская версия