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Translation transformations and their classification.


Transformation is any change of the Source text at any level (syntactic, semantic, lexical) of the language during translation. Transformations can be lexical, grammatical and lexico-grammatical.
Grammatical transformations are:
1) embedding/addition (добавление) – is a device intended for the compensation of structural elements implicitly present in the S text missing in the T language. eg. The policeman waved me on. –Полицейский помахал мне рукой, показывая, что я могу проезжать.
2) replacement (замещение) – is any change in the T text at the morphological, lexical and syntactic levels of the language when the elements of certain source paradigms are replaced by different elements of the Target ones.
3) deletion/omission (опущение) (both lexical and grammatical transformation) – eg. Summer rains in Florida may be violent, while they last. – Летом во Флориде бывают сильные ливни.
4) permutation/ transposition (перемещение) – is a change of the word order in the T text as compared to the S text. Eg. A deligation from Krasnodar arrived in Moscow yesterday. – Вчера в Москву прибыла делегация из Краснодара.

5) Partioning of sentence / sentence fragmentation – involves splitting one complex or compound sentence into 2 or more simpler sentences. Eg. People everywhere are confronted with the need to make decisions in the face of ignorance and these problem is growing. – Люди везде сталкиваются с необходимостью принятия решений при отсутствии достаточной информации. Это проблема возникает все чаще и чаще.
6) Sentence integration (объединение) — involves combining 2 sentences or more into one. Eg. Your presence is not required. Nor it is desirable. – Ваше присутствие не требуется и даже не желательно.

Lexical transformations are:
1) concretisation (конкретизация) – is used when smth in the TL is usually expressed using concepts with narrow mng or when preserving the original text with broader mng would result in an awkward translation. Eg. There is a picture on the wall. – На стене висела картина.

2) generalisation (генерализация) – is used when smth in the TL is usually expressed using concepts with broader mng or when preserving the original concepts with narrower mng would result in an awkward translation. Eg. I ordered a daiquiri. – Я заказала алкогольный коктейль.
3) Compensation / Loss of mng compensation involves adding to or reinforcing a T text in one place to compensate for smth that hasn’t been translated in different place in S text. Eg. There is one thing I hate, it’s the movies. – Если я что ненавижу, так это кино.
4) transcription – is a way of translating lexical unit of the Stext reconstructing its sound form with the help of letters of the TL.
5) transliteration – is a way of translating lexical units of the ST using the letters of the TL.
6) calque – is a part by part restorating of a word in another language.

7) Complete transformation – is used when it is necessary to understand the mng of the whole utterance and render it by means of words of TL sometimes very distant from the mng of S text. Eg. Help yourself, please. – Угощайся!
8) sense development/ extension (смысловое развитие) – involeves translating a cause by its effect and vice versa. Eg. He answered the phone – Он поднял трубку.

Lexico-grammatical transformations are:
1) Antonymic translation involves translating a phrase or clause containing a negation using a phrase or clause that doesn’t contain a negation and vice versa. Eg. I don’t think you are right. – Думаю вы не правы.
2) Metonymic translation – is similar to mng extention. Metonymy is a figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely connected. Eg. Moscow agreed to sign the peace treaty. – Правительство РФ дало согласие на подписание мирного договора.


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