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The Law System
Law is a system of rules established by the state.
The main aim of law is to consolidate and safeguard the social and state system and its economic foundation.
One important distinction made in all countries is between private — or civil — law and public law. Civil law concerns disputes among citizens within a country, and public law concerns disputes between citizens and the state, or between one state and another.
The system of law in our country consists of different categories of law.
Constitutional law is a leading category of the whole system of law. Its(1) principal source is the country's Constitution. It(2) deals with social structure, the state system, organisation of state power and the legal status of citizens.
Administrative law is closely connected with constitutional law but it(3) deals with the legal forms of concrete executive and administrative activity of a government and ministries.
Criminal law defines the general principles of criminal responsibility, individual types of crimes and punishment applied to criminals. Crimes are wrongs which, even committed against an individual are considered to harm the well-being of society in general. Criminal law takes the form of a criminal code.
International law regulates relations between governments and also between private citizens of one country and those of another.
Financial law regulates the budget, taxation, state credits and other spheres of financial activity.
Civil law is connected with relations in the economic sphere of life, with relations involving property, its distribution and exchange. The right in property is the central institution of civil law. The rules of employment law include the legislation on the employment of industrial and office workers and regulate matters arising from employment relations.
Ex. 1. Scan the text in order to match these words and phrases with their
Civil law, criminal law, administrative law, law, financial law, the rules of employment law, constitutional law.
a) ... is a system of rules established by the state.
b) ... is a leading category of the whole system of law.
c) ... deals with the legal forms of concrete executive and administrative activity of government and ministries.
d) ... regulates the budget, taxation, state credit,...
e) ... is connected with relations involving property ...
f) ... include the legislation on the labour of industrial and office workers ...
g) ... defines the general principles of criminal responsibility ...
Ex. 2. Read the text in detail to find the answers to the 10 "What"-questions below.
Ex. 3. What does "it" (2) refer to?
Ex. 4. What does "its" (1) refer to?
system of law
Ex. 5. What does "it" (3) refer to?
Ex. 6. Word study. Find adjectives in the text related to these nouns:
Ex. 7. Find nouns in the text related to these verbs:
Ex. 8. Match English words and phrases with their Russian equivalents.